We all know that color plays a big important role in conveying information in nonverbal ways, not to mention that color can also affect moods, feelings, and emotions. According to the artist Pablo Picasso, “colors, like features, follow the changes of the emotions,” therefore, it can be said that color can also be considered as one of the powerful communication tools for signal action, influence mood, and influence physiological reactions. Color can make us happy, sad, anxious, or relaxed. However, what is color psychology, and how does each existing color has a different impact on the people who see it?
The psychology of color is based on the mental and effect colors have on sighted people in all facets of life. Researchers and experts have revealed that the psychology of color has effects on moods, feelings, and behavior. But it also needs to be remembered that there are variations in interpretation, meaning, and perception between different cultures.
Ilustrasi warna-warni/ Foto: Robert Katzki/Unsplash
Ilustrasi warna-warni/ Foto: Robert Katzki/Unsplash
For example, white is often interpreted as purity but in Eastern countries, white is seen as a symbol of mourning. Even though colors are somewhat subjective perspective, some colors have universal meanings, such as warm colors like red, orange, and yellow, these colors are often considered can evoke emotions like warmth and comfort even anger and hostility. Meanwhile, cool colors including blue, purple, and green are often associated with calm feelings like sadness.
It has been common knowledge that color is often linked with a person’s emotions as it could influence a person’s mental or physical state. Research revealed a small effect of red color to physiological impact is that it could seem to raise heart rate whereas blue can lower it. Therefore, color is believed to give a big impact that in 2009, blue lights were installed at the platforms of Tokyo’s Yamanote railway line to reduce the number of suicide incidents there.
The attempt to reduce the incidence of suicide after installing the blue lights came to success as the number fell by 74 percent at the stations where the blue lights were installed. The same attempt was also applied at Gatwick Airport train platforms. These actions were taken based on the affirmation that blue-colored lights could make people less impulsive and give calming senses, regardless of the little amount of scientific evidence to support this claim.
Color in the products that we purchase is also believed to tell about personality as our color preferences might describe the type of image we want to project and other people to see. Other factors such as age and gender can also influence the color choices we make. For example, if you choose white as your color when you purchase a phone, car, and many other things, it can evoke a sense of youth and modernity.
Ilustrasi warna hitam/ Foto: Florian Rieder/Unsplash
Ilustrasi warna hitam/ Foto: Florian Rieder/Unsplash
For black, people often describe it as sexy, powerful, and mysterious and for red, it can show that you’re a confident person. These are just some of the examples from other unmentioned colors. With all of this being said, color can convey information and give impressions for people who see it. Experts have indeed found that color can influence how we act even though it’s subjective and based on situational factors. However, more wide and deep scientific research regarding color psychology is needed to give us a better understanding and innovative discovery of color for the people in the future.
Recently, I discovered that one of our Big Ten Rivals, the Iowa Hawkeyes, has their away football locker room painted completely pink. Intrigued by this, I wanted to deeper research to discover how the color of the environment around you affects how your mood or energy level reacts.
Iowa first painted their locker room pink in 1979. Since then, it has been an icon for Iowa football.
According to empower-yourself-with-color-phycology.com, the color pink represents compassion, nurturing, and love. When an athlete is trying to get pumped up for a football game, being compassionate, nurturing, and loving is the last thing these athletes want to be. In a room, that is so overwhelmingly pink, it is hard to not let these phycological tricks get to you. If I were an athlete preparing for a game in this locker room, I couldn’t help to just laugh. The entire thing is so comical, but it actually works. Also, the color pink alleviates feelings of anger and resentment, two things every football player should have when playing another team.
To find out whether or not Iowa’s win record was overwhelmingly better at home compared to away, I went through every season since the locker room was painted and counted the wins and losses when playing at home, and the wins and losses when playing away.
Out of 452 games played since 1979, the Hawkeyes overall record is 274 wins and 178 losses. Of those wins and losses, 156 wins and 78 loss were at home. That leaves 118 wins and 100 losses were away. The Iowa Hawkeyes have a win percentage of 66.7% at home and a 54.1% win percentage while away. This is over a 10% win percentage difference from playing their football games in their home stadium versus playing their football game at an away stadium.
Although the win percentage is so much better at home than away, there are other variables that need to be considered. It is a well known fact that teams always play better in front of their home crowds than away, so this could be a large factor that influences win percentage other than the pink locker room. According to Sports Algorithm Research, home college football teams win 59.97% of the time and away teams win 40.03%. Thus, Iowa’s win percentage is roughly 6% better at home than other division one college sports teams. Another variable that must be considered is the quality of talent of the Iowa Hawkeyes football players versus their opponents. If the quality of athletes is much better for the Hawkeyes, that will have a huge impact of who will win the game regardless of color of locker room or where the game is taking place.
Your access to the NCBI website at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov has beentemporarily blocked due to a possible misuse/abuse situationinvolving your site. This is not an indication of a security issuesuch as a virus or attack. It could be something as simple as a runaway script or learning how to better use E-utilities,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK25497/,for more efficient work such that your work does not impact the ability of other researchersto also use our site.To restore access and understand how to better interact with our siteto avoid this in the future, please have your system administratorcontact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Co-trimoxazole Side Effects
Generic name: sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Oct 21, 2022.
Note: This document contains side effect information about sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim. Some dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Co-trimoxazole.
Applies to sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim: oral suspension, oral tablet. Other dosage forms:
Serious side effects of Co-trimoxazole
Along with its needed effects, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim:
- Black, tarry stools
- blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
- changes in skin color
- chest pain or tightness
- clay-colored stools
- cough or hoarseness
- dark urine
- general feeling of tiredness or weakness
- itching, skin rash
- joint or muscle pain
- light-colored stools
- loss of appetite
- lower back or side pain
- pain, tenderness, or swelling of the foot or leg
- painful or difficult urination
- pale skin
- red skin lesions, often with a purple center
- red, irritated eyes
- sore throat
- sores, ulcers, or white spots in the mouth or on the lips
- stomach pain
- swollen or painful glands
- trouble breathing
- unpleasant breath odor
- unusual bleeding or bruising
- vomiting of blood
- yellow eyes or skin
Incidence not known
- Back, leg, or stomach pains
- bleeding gums
- blindness or vision changes
- blood in the urine or stools
- bluish-colored lips, fingernails, or palms
- burning, crawling, itching, numbness, painful, prickling, “pins and needles”, or tingling feelings
- burning of the face or mouth
- cloudy urine
- clumsiness or unsteadiness
- continuing ringing or buzzing or other unexplained noise in the ears
- cracks in the skin
- decreased frequency or amount of urine
- difficulty with swallowing
- fainting spells
- fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat or pulse
- general body swelling
- general feeling of discomfort or illness
- hair loss
- hearing loss
- increased thirst
- large, flat, blue, or purplish patches in the skin
- large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
- loss of heat from the body
- muscle or joint pain
- not able to pass urine
- numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, or lips
- pain or burning while urinating
- pinpoint red spots on the skin
- puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
- raised red swellings on the skin, the buttocks, legs, or ankles
- redness of the white part of the eyes
- redness, swelling, or soreness of the tongue
- soreness of the muscles
- stiff neck or back
- stomach tenderness
- swelling of the face, hands, legs, and feet
- unsteadiness, trembling, or other problems with muscle control or coordination
- weakness in the hands or feet
- weakness or heaviness of the legs
- weight gain or loss
Other side effects of Co-trimoxazole
Some side effects of sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.
Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
- Passing of gas
Incidence not known
- feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
- feeling sad or empty
- increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight
- lack of feeling or emotion
- loss of interest or pleasure
- muscle pain, stiffness, cramps, or spasms
- redness or other discoloration of the skin
- seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
- sensation of spinning
- severe sunburn
- trouble concentrating
- trouble sleeping
- weight loss
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim: intravenous solution, oral suspension, oral tablet.
The most common side effects were gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and allergic skin reactions (e.g., rash, urticaria).
Effects associated with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia management have included severe hypersensitivity reactions, rash, pyrexia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and rhabdomyolysis; such effects were very rare.
Although rare, fatalities associated with sulfonamide use have occurred due to severe reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, other blood dyscrasias, and respiratory hypersensitivity.[Ref]
Very common (10% or more): Hyperkalemia
Frequency not reported: Anorexia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, decreased appetite
Postmarketing reports: Metabolic acidosis[Ref]
Hypoglycemia has been reported in patients using sulfonamides.[Ref]
Common (1% to 10%): Nausea, diarrhea
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Vomiting
Frequency not reported: Glossitis, stomatitis, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, pancreatitis, emesis, abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, constipation, sore mouth[Ref]
Aseptic meningitis was rapidly reversible when this drug was stopped but recurred in several cases upon re-exposure to either this combination drug or to trimethoprim alone.
Tremor and other neurological manifestations (e.g., ataxia, ankle clonus, apathy) occurred during therapy with this drug in several patients with AIDS; although such effects have also been associated with the underlying disease process, these symptoms resolved within 2 to 3 days after stopping this drug.[Ref]
Common (1% to 10%): Headache
Frequency not reported: Aseptic meningitis, convulsions/seizures, peripheral neuritis/neuropathy, ataxia, dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, tremor, other neurological manifestations (e.g., ataxia, ankle clonus, apathy), lethargy, paresthesia, syncope[Ref]
Common (1% to 10%): Rash
Frequency not reported: Diffuse rash, erythematous rash, maculopapular rash, morbilliform rash, pruritic rash, urticaria, photosensitivity, pruritus, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), generalized skin eruptions, purpura, angioedema, generalized pustular dermatosis, alopecia, allergic/hypersensitivity vasculitis resembling Henoch-Schonlein purpura, erythema nodosum, bullous dermatitis[Ref]
Common (1% to 10%): Fungal/monilial overgrowth
Frequency not reported: Drug fever, chills, weakness, fatigue, abnormal elevations in alkaline phosphatase, positive lupus erythematous phenomenon, moniliasis[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Thrombophlebitis, allergic myocarditis, polyarteritis/periarteritis nodosa
Postmarketing reports: QT prolongation (resulting in ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes)[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Leucopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow depression, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, methemoglobinemia, hypoprothrombinemia, eosinophilia, hematological toxicity, hemolysis, pancytopenia, granulocytopenia
Postmarketing reports: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura[Ref]
Severe cases of thrombocytopenia that were fatal or life-threatening have been reported. Thrombocytopenia generally resolved within a week when this drug was discontinued.
Hemolysis has been reported in certain susceptible glucose-6-phosphate deficient patients.[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, elevated serum transaminase, elevated bilirubin, hepatic changes, abnormal elevations in serum transaminase levels, jaundice, elevated liver enzymes, disturbance in liver enzymes[Ref]
Cases of cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis have been fatal.
Jaundice (generally mild and transient) has been reported rarely, often occurring in patients with history of infectious hepatitis.[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Hypersensitivity, allergic skin reactions, anaphylaxis, serum sickness-like syndrome, generalized allergic reactions, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, severe hypersensitivity reactions (including associated with P jirovecii pneumonia), serum sickness[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Local reaction, pain, slight/local irritation, inflammation[Ref]
Local reaction, pain, and slight irritation were reported infrequently with IV administration.[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Arthralgia, myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, systemic lupus erythematosus, muscle weakness[Ref]
Rhabdomyolysis has been reported with this drug, primarily in patients with AIDS.[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Uveitis, conjunctival and scleral injection/redness/edema, periorbital edema, corneal ring infiltrates, vision problems[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Depression/mental depression, hallucinations, apathy, nervousness, insomnia, psychotic disorder, confusional state, agitation, anxiety, abnormal behavior, nightmares[Ref]
Nephrotoxicity has been reported in association with cyclosporine.[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Renal impairment/failure, interstitial nephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome, elevated BUN, elevated serum creatinine, toxic nephrosis, renal tubular acidosis, nephrotoxicity, functional kidney changes, abnormal elevations in serum urea, abnormal elevations in serum creatinine, stone formation, tubular necrosis, aggravation of renal disease, azotemia, hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis, overestimations of normal creatinine values[Ref]
Diuresis has been reported in patients using sulfonamides.[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Oliguria, anuria, crystalluria, diuresis, dysuria, hematuria, urgency changes, abnormal elevations in urine protein levels[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Cough, dyspnea/shortness of breath, pulmonary infiltrates/lung infiltration, epistaxis, eosinophilic/allergic alveolitis, wheezing[Ref]
Cough, dyspnea, and lung infiltration have been early indicators of respiratory hypersensitivity which, while very rare, has been fatal.[Ref]
Frequently asked questions
1. “Product Information. Septra (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim).” Glaxo Wellcome (2022):
2. “Product Information. Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim).” Teva SICOR Pharmaceuticals Inc (2004):
3. Cerner Multum, Inc. “UK Summary of Product Characteristics.” O 0
4. Cerner Multum, Inc. “Australian Product Information.” O 0
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.